Saturday, March 31, 2012

"What happened in the last four days is very telling...if decision was taken at appropriate stage, exchequer could be saved of crores of rupees," the

SC frowns at political drama over mercy pleas

SC frowns at political drama over mercy pleas

TNN | Mar 30, 2012, 02.09AM IST

NEW DELHI: The Presidential stay on execution of Balwant Singh Rajoana after a high-decibel political activity spearheaded by Punjab CM Parkash Singh Badal found indirect reference in the Supreme Court on Thursday during the hearing of condemned prisoner Devender Pal Singh Bhullar's plea for clemency on the ground that his mercy plea was decided after eight years.

Without referring to Rajoana, a bench of Justices G S Singhvi and S J Mukhopadhaya described the events in Punjab in the last few days as "drama" and was critical of the political support given to persons found guilty of terrorism-related offences.

"What happened in the last four days is very telling...if decision was taken at appropriate stage, exchequer could be saved of crores of rupees," the bench said. Violence and destruction of property in Punjab was part of the support campaign for clemency to Rajoana.

The apex court felt that passions were allowed to run high because of the "pressure" of modern political combination in governance. It said, "Instances are replete where persons found guilty of terrorist offences have got political support. There are leaders who have garnered support on this basis. How can they leave them now?"

Additional solicitor general Harin Raval concentrated on the Bhullar's case and said the government was not at fault for the delay in deciding the mercy plea. He said the 26/11 terror attack on Mumbai followed by a change in government were the reasons for a freeze on decision making process on all mercy petitions.

Immediately after the UPA government retained power at the Centre in 2009, each mercy petition was considered in the chronological order of their submission, he said fighting the bench's skepticism about extraneous considerations not playing a role in decisions on mercy pleas.

The bench said, "We were there in this part of the country - the state which suffered from 1982-83. All top leaders were given protection. They (political outfits) took benefit of situation created due to various factors and came back to power. That's unfortunate and harsh story of the political game in these two decades...These considerations are impacting the decisions (on mercy petitions). They are ground realities and are bound to be considered."

The bench asked Raval to place on record the list of files relating to pending mercy petitions and the order in which they were recalled for reconsideration. The arguments will continue next Tuesday.

would render h/himself liable for judicial misconduct.

According to the bill, any judge, who makes oral comments against other constitutional authorities and individuals,would render h/himself liable for

According to the bill, any judge, who makes oral comments against other constitutional authorities and individuals, would render h/himself liable for judicial misconduct.

Lok Sabha clears judicial accountability bill TNN | Mar 30, 2012,

Lok Sabha clears judicial accountability bill

TNN | Mar 30, 2012, 02.11AM IST

NEW DELHI: The Lok Sabha on Thursday cleared the judicial accountability legislation that seeks to set up a credible mechanism to probe complaints of misbehaviour by judges.

The Judicial Standards and Accountability Bill, 2010, and Constitutional 114th Amendment Bill, 2010, will help setting new probity standards in higher judiciary.

The bill seeks to establish credible and expedient mechanism for probing into individual complaints for misbehaviour or incapacity of a judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court.

It also provides to regulate the procedure for such investigation and for the presentation of an address by Parliament to President proceeding for removal of a judge and for matters connected with such matters.

The bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha in 2010 and subsequently sent to the parliamentary standing committee on personnel, law and justice, which made a crucial recommendation that seeks to "restrain" judges from making "unwarranted comments" against other constitutional bodies or persons.

According to the bill, any judge, who makes oral comments against other constitutional authorities and individuals, would render h/himself liable for judicial misconduct.

Making a brief reply on the bill, law minister Salman Khurshid said the legislation seeks to set up a mechanism to inquire into complaints against a judge of the SC or the HC. The minister said the bill aims at striking a balance between maximizing judicial independence and laying down accountability for members of the higher judiciary. Khurshid said, "The passage of this bill shall be a major achievement in establishing systems and procedures which will be far superior and practicable to that provided for in the Judges Enquiry Act."

The poverty wars and impossibly low poverty line of India

The poverty wars and impossibly low poverty line of India

By: V Raghunathan CEO, GMR Varalakshmi Foundation

Swaminathan Anklesaria Aiyar (TOI March 25 and ET March 28) has strongly defended the Planning Commission's stance that there is nothing amiss with the poverty line drawn at Rs 22.40 in rural areas and Rs 28.65 in urban areas (down from initial estimates of Rs ...32 and Rs 26, respectively).

Let us discount the copious tears being shed by various politicians and their parties on this new line of poverty as crocodilian, because after all, it is this class that is largely responsible for some 300 million Indians earning below this pathetic line six decades after Independence.

Let us also discount the parallel drawn between the Planning Commission's poverty line and that of the World Bank, which may be in the same street at $1.25 or Rs 23.75 per day based on the PPP dollar (where Rs 19 equals $1).

This figure may be representative of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, but is hardly becoming of an ambitious, welfare-minded emerging nation, aspiring to a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council.

So let us apply some common sense to the problem. The poverty line cannot be dissociated from a poor man's daily needs for subsistence. Swaminomics defines key ingredients of subsistence for the poor at 400 gm (or 8 @ 20 per kg) of wheat and 100 gm of chana dal (or Rs 4.50 @ Rs 45 per kg) to ensure a daily intake of 2,000 calories and little besides. That accounts for Rs 12.50 for basic food.

If accepted, this leaves about Rs 10 or Rs 14, for the rural or urban poor, per day for a most basic roof over his or her head; such expenses as cooking fuel; cooking oil; salt and chilly; other basic spices like turmeric, garlic, an odd onion (or is it a luxury now?); may be a cup, if not two, of tea every day; a whiff of spinach or cabbage occasionally; not to speak of two bed clothes - a sheet on the top and a coarse throw on the floor.

We agree that a poor man deserves no pillow. Maybe, two dhotis or pyjamas or saris with two blouses or shirts each. We should remember at least one set of warm clothes for winters and utensils like a metal pot, pan and serving spoon, an occasional earthen or plastic pot to fetch and store water, a bucket, chakla, belan, tava and a pan for the dough to make chapatis.

The poor will still need a bar of soap, a kerosene stove in places where firewood or coal is hard to come by and is certainly not free. She will also need a pair of plastic slippers, a blue tarpaulin and some nylon rope to reinforce the roof every other year and occasional access to local transportation.

What could be the cost of a very basic roof over a poor man's head? Is a 10x10 square foot abode for a family of four acceptable? If so, at a monthly rental of 5 to 6 per sqft (depending on rural or urban areas), such a dwelling for four must cost about or Rs 500 to Rs 600 per month or Rs 4 to Rs 5 per day per person.

And if you assume that even the most wretched deserve the dignity of a latrine, unless it is a national policy that the poor must forever defecate on streets or fields, even the cheapest public lavatory costs Rs 1 per visit per person per day in rural and Rs 2 in urban areas. At two visits a day, that is another 2 or 4 per person per day. So that's Rs 6 or Rs 8 just for shelter, leaving between Rs 4 and Rs 5 to the rural or urban poor for other day-to-day requirements.

Surely neither Montek Ahluwalia nor Swaminathan Aiyar considers any of the above as luxuries?

Friday, March 30, 2012

30 MAR, 2012, 03.42PM IST, PTI India should push economic reforms for growth, investments: DBS

30 MAR, 2012, 03.42PM IST, PTI

India should push economic reforms for growth, investments: DBS


SINGAPORE: India must push on with economic reforms as back tracking on such initiatives will impact growth as well as foreign investments, a senior banking official said here today.

"It is disappointing that India back tracks on reforms," said David Carbon, Managing Director, Economic and Currency Research at the DBS Bank.

Two years ago, India was projected to have an annual economic growth of 9 per cent, supported by reforms of sectors such as retails, insurance and land, he pointed out.

But back tracking on such reforms has lowered the annual Indian economic growth to about 7 per cent, said Carbon on the sidelines of the DBS Asia Markets conference 2012.

DBS estimated Indian economic growth at 6.7 per cent in 2011-12, and slowing to 6.5 per cent in 2012-13.

Meanwhile, suggesting a rebound, the Indian government earlier this month had projected the economy to grow by about 7.6 per cent in the next fiscal, up from 6.9 per cent estimated in 2011-12 on the back of declining inflation and softening interest rate.

Reforms would also help India tackle its inflation rate, which becomes challenging in high growth environment, said Carbon.

India, along with China, has been driving Asian growth despite the economic problems in Europe and the US.

In his presentation at the conference, Carbon highlighted Asian economic re-acceleration this year despite the weak US and EU economies and drop in their imports from Asia.

Exports among the Asian markets have offset the big 11 per cent drop in exports to Europe between August 2011 and January 2012, Carbon said.

Asian consumption has boosted the region's economic growth as, among other drivers, industrial production was surging in the first quarter of this year, he said.

Asian gross domestic growth expanded by 6.7 per cent in the fourth quarter of last year with uptrend in growth in the first quarter of this year.

Comparatively, quarter-on-quarter growth fell from 9.9 per cent in the first quarter of last year to 5.4 per cent each in the second quarter and third quarter.

RBI says dealing with inflation is important for high growth

RBI says dealing with inflation is important for high growth


MUMBAI: Dealing with inflation in India is important to "recreate" high growth, Subir Gokarn, a deputy governor at the Reserve Bank of India, said on Friday.

The country's economic growth slowed to 6.1 percent in the three months to December, the weakest annual pace in almost three years.

The wholesale price index, India's main gauge of inflation, rose a faster-than-expected 6.95 percent from a year earlier in February, after a spike in vegetable prices fanned food inflation.

It was "not a wasted opportunity"as d 5 emerging economies demonstrated collective confidence by striking a "clear-cut" stand on global/regional issue

it was "not a wasted opportunity" as the five emerging economies demonstrated collective confidence by striking a "clear-cut" stand on global and regional issues.

BRICS summit successful in advancing cooperation: Chinese mediaBRICS summit successful in advancing cooperation: Chinese media/

30 MAR, 2012, 02.50PM IST,

BRICS summit successful in advancing cooperation: Chinese media

BEIJING: Calling the Delhi BRICS summit a success, the Chinese media and think tanks today said it was "not a wasted opportunity" as the five emerging economies demonstrated collective confidence by striking a "clear-cut" stand on global and regional issues.

Experts feel that the BRICS countries -- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - at their meeting achieved positive results in the fields of pushing forward global governance, promoting world stability and strengthening cooperation among member countries, state-run Xinhua news agency said in its commentary.


China's Assistant Foreign Minister Ma Zhaoxu, who attended the meeting, said the event was met with "full success".


"This summit has clearly not been a wasted opportunity and has been successful in advancing cooperation, consultation and coordination among the member countries," the official 'China Daily' said in its editorial on the event.

"It has made it clear that they have come together for the benefit of their people and the international community as a whole," the editorial said.

"They also voiced their united support for a Syrian peace process promoted by international envoy Kofi Annan and warned of the 'disastrous consequences' of allowing the Iran nuclear issue to escalate into conflict," it said.

It is good to see the group showing solidarity on issues of global significance, it said. "By speaking with one voice, they can better defend their own interests and those of the developing world at large and promote fairer global governance."

"The influence of the BRICS is on the rise. They are becoming confident enough to have a clear-cut stand on global and regional affairs and call for more power of discourse in international institutions," Zhang Haibin, a specialist in international organisations at Peking University, said.

"As an international group, BRICS is exploring its own ways to solve problems that are challenging the whole world such as regional conflicts, the economic crisis, terrorism and climate change," he told state-run the Global Times.

Chi Fulin, President of the China Institute for Reform and Development, said that providing a line of credit by the BRICS is "a substantial step to strengthen the bloc's economic integration and vital for the establishment of a joint bank."

"The benefit of a BRICS bank will go beyond BRICS to other developing countries," Chi said.

Will not allow construction of new dam by Karnataka, says TN

Will not allow construction of new dam by Karnataka, says TN

Chennai, Mar 30, 2012 (PTI)

With the Cauvery water sharing row escalating, Tamil Nadu government today made it clear that it would not allow construction of a new dam by Karnataka at Mekedhatu across the river under "any circumstances."

Replying to a special mention on the water dispute in the Assembly, Chief Minister Jayalalithaa accused Karnataka of not honouring the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal award.

She said Karnataka makes all efforts to first fill its reservoirs and then release only surplus waters to Tamil Nadu.

"I and my government are committed to securing the state's rightful share in the Cauvery waters," she said, amid thumping of desk by the members.

She said Karnataka cannot build a dam at Mekedhatu, about 100 km from Bangalore, without Tamil Nadu's acceptance. "If Karnataka tries to build a dam, Tamil Nadu will not allow the move under any circumstances."

Her assertion comes in the backdrop of tough postures being adopted by Karnataka leaders on the release of water from Cauvery to Tamil Nadu.

Accusing Karnataka of using water from its dams for summer irrigation, she said, as per the final orders of the Tribunal, Karnataka had used 203 tmc ft of water for irrigation as against the stipulated 103.24 tmc ft of water.

"Karnataka is also not giving water to Tamil Nadu for its Kuruvai cultivation (short term) in June and July," she said.

Since Karnataka was utilising water for its summer crops, during monsoon that state took efforts to fill its reservoirs and then released water to Tamil Nadu, resulting in Mettur dam in the state not getting its due share, she said.
Recalling her meeting with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh after she assumed office last year, Jayalalithaa said she had discussed the issue of notifying the Tribunal's award and setting up Cauvery Water Management Board for implementing it.

"But so far, the Centre has not acted on these demands and Tamil Nadu government has been pressing for them," she said.

The two states are locked in decades-long dispute on sharing Cauvery waters.The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal, set up by the Centre, had in 2007 given its final award, allocating 419 tmcft water to Tamil Nadu and 270 tmcft to Karnataka annually.

However, Karnataka has challenged the award in the Supreme Court, alleging it gave a raw deal to the state overlooking its requirements and rights.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

BRICS nations' efforts will strengthen international system:US

BRICS nations' efforts will strengthen international system:US


Washington, Mar 30, 2012, (PTI)

The efforts of BRICS nations to engage in global multilateral institutions will help in strengthening the ''international system'', the US has said.

"We've reviewed the leaders' Delhi declaration and believe that their engagement in multilateral institutions, global multilateral institutions, can only strengthen our international system as well as we appreciated their comments in support of the global economic recovery," State Department spokesperson Mark Toner said at his daily news conference.
Toner also allayed apprehensions that BRICS nations move towards a joint developmental bank will duplicate the efforts of other multilateral institutions.

The US also welcomed the commitment of BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) to Afghanistan's future in supporting the global economic recovery.
Stressing that there were no differences with BRICS nations on the issue of import of Iranian oil, he said the US was "engaged in close consultations" with governments on the requirements of its specific law.

"In all our consultations, we're making very clear the importance of reducing reliance on Iranian oil, and also unwinding countries' business dealings with the Central Bank of Iran, and we're going to continue those discussions," he said.

Asked about the stand of BRICS nations over military options against Iran, Toner said President Barack Obama has already made it clear that "no option has been taken off the table" and there was "still time" for a diplomatic solution.

Two pacts to strengthen Brics bond/BRICS today agreed to provide credit to each other in local currencies,will facilitate economic growth duringcrisis

Two pacts to strengthen Brics bond

R. SURYAMURTHY


New Delhi, March 29: The Brics group — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa — today agreed to provide credit to each other in local currencies, which will facilitate economic growth during crisis.

The countries also agreed to examine the possibility of setting up a development bank on the lines of multi-lateral lending agencies.

The currency deal is aimed at promoting trade and investment in local currencies as well as cutting transaction costs. The move comes at a time weak global demand is hurting the export prospects of some Brics members.

“The agreements signed today by the development banks of Brics countries will boost trade by offering credit in our local currency,” Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said in a media statement after the meeting.

On the development bank, Singh said, “We have directed our finance ministers to examine the proposal and report back at the next summit.”

The Brics finance ministers will set up a joint working group to study the feasibility of the initiative.

The five nations today signed two pacts — a Master Agreement In Extending Credit Facility and a Multilateral Letter Of Credit Confirmation Facility Agreement. The pacts will help reduce the demand for fully-convertible currencies for trade among Brics nations and lower transaction costs.

The currency agreement highlights the efforts of emerging economies to insulate themselves from the Eurozone debt crisis and boost trade amid sluggish growth in developed markets such as the US and Europe.

N.R. Bhanumurthy of the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy said, “The move will boost bilateral trade and shift the dependence on the dollar and the euro. It will also boost trade among Brics nations.”

Analysts said the pact was a natural extension of the booming trade among these countries, which is growing at an annual rate of 28 per cent and now stands at $230 billion a year.

They said it was also an effort to alleviate some of the stress induced when the value of their currencies against the dollar fluctuated dramatically.

In a statement, the Brics countries blamed the developed economies for creating excessive liquidity that left emerging economies at the mercy of large and volatile cross-border capital flows.

Russia and India plan to switch to trading in domestic currencies in three years, Vladimir Dmitriev, the chairman of Russia’s largest state development bank VEB, said.

“With China it took us three years to (evolve) from initial conversations to trading in local currencies… I think we will meet similar terms with India… the swap requires a lot of technical work by each country such as the synchronisation of national banking legislation,” Dmitriev said.

A development bank will allow the member countries to pool resources for infrastructure development. The fund can also be used to lend during the difficult global environment.

Intra-Brics trade is about $230 billion and has the potential of more than doubling to $500 billion by 2015.

Expressing concerns over the current global situation and excessive volatility in capital flows and commodity prices, Brics leaders in the joint declaration said, “The immediate (need) is to restore market confidence and get global growth back on track.

“It is critical for advanced economies to adopt responsible macro-economic and financial policies, avoid creating excessive global liquidity and undertake structural reforms to lift growth that creates jobs,” it added.

Why China needs BRICS for the time being W /29/3/12

Why China needs BRICS for the time being

March 29, 2012 18:59 IST

The BRICS states need to pin down China on long-term norm-based values, ideas and concrete proposals and programmes for the mutual benefit of the constituent member states, writes Srikanth Kondapalli.


Today's summit meeting of the Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa multilateral grouping at New Delhi [ Images ] suggests to its transition from a "talk-shop" institution, to that of laying down concrete plans for changes in global power matrix, specifically in the economic field.

When United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton [ Images ] mentioned that the US should learn from the BRICS' economic rise, it is an endorsement of the coordination of the BRICS in the international relations as well as in economic development.

Although there are acute differences between the BRICS states on market-economy status, investments, reform of the UNSC membership, democracy, etc., the grouping is expected to enhance its prestige in the coming years as the globe is witnessing major changes in power re-distribution.

The New Delhi Declaration of the BRICS highlighted the need for global economic recovery and the steps needed to be undertaken in this regard, including "adopting responsible macroeconomic and financial policies" by the West; IMF quota reforms; increase the lending capacity of the IMF; leadership of the World Bank coming from developing countries; creation of a South-South Development Fund, etc.

However, the Declaration was silent on the explicit endorsement of UN Security Council membership to Brazil [ Images ], South Africa [ Images ] and India [ Images ] and indicates to China's reservations in this regard.

Indeed, of all the constituents of the BRICS, the role of China has been highlighted as a major beneficiary of this multilateral process. China is the 2nd largest economy in the world with nearly $6 trillion in GDP.

However, its level of economic development is uneven, with income inequalities between rural and urban incomes reaching highest levels for any country in 2011 to nearly 0.52 on the Gino-coefficient measure. China also witnessed, as a consequence about 180,000 "mass protests" in 2010 - and rising.

Also, China's exports constitute nearly 62 per cent of its GDP, while domestic consumption is about 38 per cent. This implies that China is more dependent on the external (and Western) markets than the other BRICS states. Hence trade protectionism hurts China more than the other BRICS states.

China has accumulated more than $3.2 trillion in foreign exchange reserves - most of it invested in the US Treasury Securities (about $1.2 trillion) and in euro. China invested nearly $250 billion in raw materials and energy resources, specifically in Asia, Africa and South America.

However, it has been reluctant to invest in the industrialisation of the other BRICS states so far. While China pledged to invest in the Chiang Mai 1997 initiative of Asian Monetary Fund, no major funds were allocated by Beijing [ Images ]. It needs to be seen how much China will pledge in the South-South Development Fund suggested at this New Delhi meeting.

While all the other BRICS states are, to varying degrees, democratic in political systems, China has an authoritarian system at home, with rising political aspirations of Chinese.

Although China has suggested that the international system (for instance the UNSC) should be democratized, no explicit or concrete measures were undertaken by China to democratize reform and reorganize the system, either internationally or domestically.

All the above points raise the question of China's role in the BRICS phenomenon on its motivations, objectives, interests and how far it can go to stick with the BRICS and support other members in the international system. China (and Russia [ Images ]) had been new to the multilateral process which suggest to pooling of sovereignties, interests and adjustments by three or more countries.

Multilateralism includes equality, mutual trust, reciprocity, non-exclusivity (on membership of the organisation), non-specificity of the enemy, non-discrimination, peaceful resolution of disputes, etc.

China initially emphasised on bilateral relations in the 1950s and 1960s. After the reform programme was initiated in 1978, China faced the dilemma of adjusting to the international regimes. Last two decades, specifically after joining the WTO in 2001 China re-adjusted its policies. This is reflected in the mild response of China in the Doha round of talks in comparison to the vociferous stance of Brazil, India and South Africa.

Also, China's relations with the US are factored by Beijing for larger gains in terms of investments, high technology and markets in the West. In the backdrop of the Group 2 (i.e. between US and China) coordination of international and regional security and economic situation as suggested by Brzezinski, China's position in multilateral institutions is quite evident. China had not explicitly opposed the US policies.

Instead, while remaining in the sidelines, Beijing supported Russia, Germany [ Images ] and France [ Images ] in the Second Gulf War in 2003 or on other security and economic issues. Multilateralism then comes in handy for Beijing to shield itself for the time being till its comprehensive national strength surpasses that of the US and power transition at the global levels take place in Beijing's favour. Hence China needs BRICS for the time being.

China needs the current interregnum in the international system and in power transition with the US. China does not want a violent conflict with the US in this transition at the global level as it would cost its hard earned rise in the international system.

While China suggests that it sticks to multilateralism, it is not clear if this is a long-term policy or for a short term co-existence. The BRICS states need to pin down China on long-term norm-based values, ideas and concrete proposals and programmes for the mutual benefit of the constituent member states.

Nehru had the courage to uphold values that ended cold war: Medvedev

Nehru had the courage to uphold values that ended cold war: Medvedev

VIJETHA S. N


The Hindu Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (centre) with Union Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal soon after he was conferred a degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi on Wednesday. JNU Vice-Chancellor Sudhir K. Sopory is at left. Photo: Rajeev Bhatt
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev praised Jawaharlal Nehru's political will, warned of evil forces all round and appealed to everyone to help make the world a better place while receiving an honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Jawaharlal Nehru University here on Wednesday.

“His personality was of world calibre, he was never searching for benefits but worked for long-term development, there is a lot to be learnt from the political legacy and heritage of Jawaharlal Nehru,” he said, adding that leaders of his calibre who had the courage to uphold values were responsible for the end of the cold war. He reiterated that the dynamics of the world had changed and that there were more than just two powerful world forces today and that everyone was going through testing times.

“Countries are being tested for duress…you know what I mean. Evil spreads around quickly and protection from this evil must be consolidated,” he said, and talked in depth about the recent nuclear summit in Korea. “We have cordial relations with France, but India is simply our very serious partner.”

His sentiments were echoed by Union Human Resource Development Minister Kapil Sibal who said that the friendly relations between the two countries in this 60 year of their friendship were a model for other nations to emulate. “The seeds of JNU were sown with Russian studies as its nucleus,” he added.

JNU Vice-Chancellor Sudhir K. Sopory conferred the degree on the visiting dignitary.

The Russian President, as a former lecturer of St. Petersburg State University, was also especially honoured and appreciated the award of the degree as an academic. “I was a faculty member and dealt with scientific and political subjects…I am especially honoured because of this,” he said, while informing the audience about the extent of the Russian presence in India's higher education system. “We have very important projects in the country; around 120 projects have been implemented in more than 60 research institutions. There are currently around 1,000 students from India in our universities… our universities also help in formulating our foreign policy.”

He also talked at length about the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) Summit for which he is here in the Capital. “BRICS is relatively a young entity. With the inclusion of South Africa, it has now become a global entity. We have large States united (in this group) and we have a substantial share of the world's GDP….. People do listen to us,” he observed.

He also spoke about India's capital city. “I took a walk around your monuments to get a sense of the rhythm….people here have good intentions and open souls… we have the same problems… To make life decent for our citizens, we need to address issues of economy and security,” he said, and ended his address with this message: “It is within our reach to make this place a better place to live”.

‎"We have to learn to be our own best friends because we fall too easily into the trap of being our own worst enemies." -- Roderick Thorp

BRICS countries are evolving from being 'followers' of the West to 'rule makers': Chinese expert/but warned Dat intra-BRICS trade'll see tensions too

BRICS countries becoming rule makers: Chinese expert

Mar 29, 2012 | IANS | Beijing

BRICS countries are evolving from being 'followers' of the West to 'rule makers', a Chinese expert said on Thursday. But he warned that intra-BRICS trade will see tensions too.

"Given the current international situation, BRICS countries need to further strengthen cooperation, so as to cope with the various challenges and safeguard the interests of developing countries," Du Youkang wrote in China Daily.

Collaboration on global issues was conducive to international political and economic rebalancing in post-crisis era, he said in a commentary as leaders of Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa met in New Delhi.

The summit held ‘great importance’, said Du, a professor in the Institute of international Studies of Fudan University.

"The international situation is undergoing profound and complicated changes: there is unrest in several regions, faltering economic growth in the developed world ... and the resurgence of trade protectionism, which poses challenges to the multilateral trading system.


Moody's: New China growth target reflects new realities

"At the same time the BRICS countries have maintained their good growth momentum and raised their international status and influence."

Du said BRICS countries had played an increasingly important role in tackling global challenges, and had become a major force in easing global financial and economic crisis.

Since 2010, more than 50 percent of global growth has come from BRICS, which he called the "global growth powerhouse".

But Du said that due to their similar stage of development, BRICS countries cannot avoid competition in acquiring investment, technology and markets, as well as frictions in trade and other areas.

"But BRICS countries are actively seeking mutual understanding and strengthening mutual trust and cohesion and are committed to building a BRICS partnership that consolidates global stability, security and prosperity."

In 2010, China surpassed Japan to become the world's second largest economy. Brazil was the world's sixth largest economy in 2011, and India and Russia are in the world's top 10, Du said.

"Due to the rapid development of BRICS countries, the global balance of power is undergoing changes in favour of developing countries.

"The rising weight, status and role of BRICS countries and other emerging economies in international affairs is obviously conducive to international political and economic rebalancing."

BRICS focusses on economic, development issues/Asks antagonists to resolve suspicions over Iran’s nuclear programme through talks on multilateral fora

BRICS focusses on economic, development issues

SANDEEP DIKSHIT


Eschew politics: (From left) President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Chinese President Hu Jintao and

Asks antagonists to resolve suspicions over Iran’s nuclear programme through talks on multilateral fora

While making a strong statement on Iran and adopting a middle-of-the-road resolution on Syria, the fourth summit of BRICS largely eschewed political content and focussed on economic and development issues which included beginning the process for setting up a bank and inking two pacts to ease trade among each other.

The Delhi Declaration issued at the end of the one-day summit hinted at backing an alternate candidate for the World Bank President’s post which has always been appropriated by an American and exhorted the Bank and the International Monetary Fund to quickly realign their priorities and approach to the needs of the developing world. This is an agenda the five countries intend pursuing at the forthcoming G-20 meeting in Mexico as well.

The leaders, who held a closed door meeting that overran the allotted time, weighed the consequences of setting up a "BRICS Bank’’ and opted for a more contemplative approach by asking their Finance Ministers to examine its feasibility and report back at the next summit in Russia. Sources said the leaders agreed that the bank should in no way emerge as a competitor to the World Bank and the IMF but provide funds for projects that do not find favour with these institutions.

In line with their professed commitment to multilateralism in economic and political problem solving, the leaders agreed to invest more in the United Nations Conference on Trade & Development which had played a major role in catering to the interests of developing countries in the run up to the setting up of the World Trade Organisation.

In the political sphere, the Declaration was most explicit on Iran and Palestine while broadly endorsing the Kofi Annan approach to resolving the year-long conflict in Syria. It cautioned against using the pretext of the Arab Spring to delay resolution of the Palestine issue and believed direct talks between Ramallah and Tel Aviv would dampen some of the disquiet in the Middle East and North Africa.

The five-nation grouping’s formulation on Iran came close to condemning the West’s pressure tactics to make other countries obey their latest restrictions on trade ties, especially in the energy sphere. Saying that a conflict would have disastrous consequences, it wanted the two antagonists to resolve suspicions over Iran’s nuclear programme through talks at multilateral fora. On Afghanistan, BRICS exhorted the international community to stay the course on the development front for 10 years after the West withdraws most of its combat troops by 2014-end and, on Russia’s insistence, made a mention of checking narcotic trafficking.

China and Russia, while not endorsing the candidature of the three other BRICS members to join them as permanent members on the UN Security Council, "supported’’ their desire to play a greater role at the UN. A large part of the most exhaustive post-BRICS summit declaration issued so far was devoted to sustainability and developmental issues and approvingly noted initiatives taken by them to advance dialogue on climate change, poverty eradication and a cleaner energy mix.

An Action Plan, riding on the high implementation rate of previous work plans, has lined up a series of line-Ministry interactions so that some of the intentions expressed in the Declaration edge closer to implementation by the time of the next summit in Russia.

Keywords: New Delhi BRICS Summit, Delhi Declaration

Pakistan opens up India too should remove trade irritants/No end to terror/Need to focus on intelligence

EDITORIALS

Pakistan opens up

India too should remove trade irritants

PAKISTAN’S surprise decision on Wednesday to liberalise trade with India augurs well for peace and prosperity in the region. Persistent opposition from hardliners and industrialists had stymied trade talks between the commerce ministers of the two countries last month. The troubled government of Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani has shown unusual courage and vision by overcoming domestic hurdles and giving trade a chance to promote peace. Hitherto, Islamabad had allowed trade in only 1,963 items placed on a “positive list”. Now trade will be open in any number of products except the 1,209 sensitive items kept on a “negative list”, which too would be scrapped by the end of this year if India too shows a positive gesture.

The breakthrough in trade talks happened after India dropped its objections to the European Union cutting tariffs on Pakistani textiles last year. Pakistan responded by reviving the talk of granting India “most favoured nation” (MFN) status, which is a term popularised by the World Trade Organisation to convey that all members of the WTO will treat each other equally in matters of tariffs. India granted MFN status to Pakistan way back in 1996 but the latter has hesitated as industries in Pakistan fear their market would be swamped by cheaper Indian goods. The balance of trade is heavily in India’s favour. Due to pressure from industrialists the Pakistani leadership has increased the number of items on the negative list from the original 650 to 1,200.

The policy of delinking trade from the sensitive issues of terror and Kashmir has proved beneficial. The bilateral trade, currently valued at $2.7 billion, can shoot up, given the cultural similarities and people-to-people warmth between the two countries. Delhi is considering allowing Pakistani investments. To build trust tariff barriers may have to be eased. The Wagah border may have to expand faster to cope with the rush of goods and people. Given the limitations of a single land route, more pre-partition road links will have to be revived. This may boost the economy of the war-ravaged states of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and Rajasthan.


No end to terror

Need to focus on intelligence


THE national Capital has been saved from a major terror strike with the arrest of two persons suspected to be terrorists associated with the Pakistan-based Lashkar-e-Toiba. That the arrested men are Indians and had come back after getting training from across the border shows that terrorist training camps continue to function in Pakistan. One fails to understand how these camps are still functional despite the Pakistan government having pledged not to allow its territory to be used to launch terror strikes in India or any other country. The arrested persons were part of a major plan to strike terror in Delhi on or around Divali. The Lashkar’s idea, perhaps, is that India can be easily weakened by not allowing it to have communal peace. The fact that it continues to get local recruits for implementing its destructive designs is unnerving.

Obviously, the country’s intelligence-gathering network has played a significant role in getting the terror plot foiled. Perhaps, strict vigil on terror modules after last month’s attack on an Israeli Embassy car has led to the success in nabbing the misguided persons. This is what should be done to fight the menace.

Since terrorism remains as potent a threat to peace as it has been in the past, it is necessary to have a fresh look at the need for an agency like the National Counter-Terrorism Centre (NCTC). Politicising the NCTC idea will harm the country’s interests. A way must be found to answer the questions being raised relating to the federal character of the nation so that the NCTC soon becomes a reality. Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram is of the view that the NCTC must have the power to arrest terror suspects so that it can function effectively. He perhaps has a point as a toothless NCTC may prove to be only an addition to the number of agencies already functioning for fighting terror.

It's not the deprivation of rights; it's totalitarianism.

It's not the deprivation of rights; it's totalitarianism.

by Binyamin Netanyahu


Do not be fooled by the apologists of terror.

These apologists tell us that the root cause of terrorism is the deprivation of national and civic rights, and that the way to stop terror is to redress the supposed grievances that arise from this deprivation.

But the root cause of terrorism, the deliberate targeting of civilians, is not the deprivation of rights. If it were, then in the thousands of conflicts and struggles for national and civil rights in modern times we would see countless instances of terrorism. But we do not.
Mahatma Gandhi fought for the independence of India without resorting to terrorism. So too did the peoples of Eastern Europe in their struggle to bring down the Berlin Wall. And Martin Luther King's campaign for equal rights for all Americans eschewed all violence, much less terrorism.

If the deprivation of rights is indeed the root cause of terrorism, why did all these people pursue their cause without resorting to terror? Put simply, because they were democrats, not terrorists. They believed in the sanctity of each human life, were committed to the ideals of liberty, and championed the values of democracy.
But those who practice terrorism do not believe in these things. In fact, they believe in the very opposite. For them, the cause they espouse is so all-encompassing, so total, that it justifies anything. It allows them to break any law, discard any moral code and trample all human rights in the dust. In their eyes, it permits them to indiscriminately murder and maim innocent men and women, and lets them blow up a bus full of children.

There is a name for the doctrine that produces this evil. It is called totalitarianism.

Indeed, the root cause of terrorism is totalitarianism. Only a totalitarian regime, by systemically brainwashing its subjects, can indoctrinate hordes of killers to suspend all moral constraints for the sake of a twisted cause.

That is why from its inception totalitarianism has always been wedded to terrorism -- from Lenin to Stalin to Hitler to the ayatollahs to Saddam Hussein, right down to Osama bin Laden and Yasser Arafat.

Those who fight as terrorists rule as terrorists.

It is not merely that the goals of terrorists do not justify the means they choose, it is that the means they choose tell us what their true goals are. Osama bin Laden is not seeking to defend the rights of Muslims but to murder as many Americans as possible, and ultimately to destroy America. Saddam Hussein is not seeking to defend his people but to subjugate his neighbors. Arafat is not seeking to build a state but to destroy a state; the many massacres of Jews he sponsors tells us what he would do to all the Jews of Israel if he had enough power.

Those who fight as terrorists rule as terrorists. People who deliberately target the innocent never become leaders who protect freedom and human rights. When terrorists seize power, they invariably set up the darkest of dictatorships -- whether in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan or Arafatistan.

In short, the reason why some resort to terror and others do not is not any absence of rights, but the presence of a tyrannical mindset. The totalitarian mind knows no limits. The democratic mind sets them everywhere.

The essential steps to defeat international terrorism are being courageously undertaken by President Bush. By declaring that terrorism is never justified, and by deterring or destroying those regimes that support terror, President Bush has bravely charted a course that will lead the free world to victory.

But to assure that this evil does not re-emerge a decade or two from now, we must not merely uproot terror but also plant the seeds of freedom. Only under tyranny can a terrorist mindset be widely cultivated. It cannot breed in a climate of democracy and freedom.

The open debate of ideas and the respect for human life that are the foundation of all free societies are a permanent antidote to the poison that the terrorists seek to inject into the minds of their recruits.

That is why it is imperative that once the terrorist regimes in the Middle East are swept away, the free world, led by America, must begin to build the institutions of pluralism and democracy in their place. This will not happen overnight, and it is not likely to result in liberal, Western-style democracies. But given an option between Turkish-style freedom and Iranian-style tyranny, the choice is clear.
We simply can no longer allow parts of the world to remain cloistered by fanatic militancies. Such militancies, once armed with nuclear weapons, could destroy our civilization. We must begin immediately to encourage the peoples of the Arab and Islamic world to embrace the idea of pluralism and the ideals of freedom -- for their sake, as well as ours.

Terrorism & Counterterrorism Emerging trends in terrorism (it was in 6/sept/2002)


Terrorism & Counterterrorism

Emerging trends in terrorism

Sep 6, 2002 – By Zafar Nawaz Jaspal


Mr. Zafar Nawaz Jaspal is a security analyst based in Islamabad. He holds a Master's Degree in Political Science and M.Phil in International Relations. He is currently a Ph.D candidate at the Department of International Relations Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad.

Abstract

This article maintains the prevalent argument that the terrorists' patterns have fundamentally changed since the last quarter of the twentieth century. According to this argument, new trends are different from old trends along at least three related dimensions- Fewer incidents, greater casualties; the growth of religious terrorism; and Nuclear, Biological, Chemical terrorism. The emerging new trends, despite the infusion of sophistication seem to portend increase in lethality and ruthlessness in death and destruction.

Introduction

Terrorism is not a recent phenomenon. It is older than the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Its early roots are in acts of assassination, regicide, and tyrannicide. And early examples include the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B. C., The Zealots-Sicarii- a Jewish sect, during the first century A. D., the Assassins, or Ismailis-Nizari during eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Thugs in India, 19th century European Anarchists and Social revolutionaries, Ku Klux Klan in the United States, etc.[1] Despite that terrorism is an old phenomena, the term terrorism has neither a precise definition, nor one which is widely acceptable.[2] Terrorism's trends, however, are not static and have been changing with the passage of time. In the present age, we are experiencing alarming change in these trends. New adversaries, new motivations and new rationales, which have emerged in recent years, can couple with today's increased opportunities and capabilities to launch terrorism on a trajectory towards higher levels of lethality, mass destruction and mass killing, and to challenge the conventional knowledge about it.

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington have not only intensified the debate about new emerging trends in the international terrorism, but also added a new dimension in the operative tactics of the terrorists. Since, more than a century, the terrorists have been using two basic weapons: the gun and bomb. On September 11, the terrorists destroyed their targets by using commercial airlines. Letters contaminated with the lethal anthrax bacteria, followed it. The threat from bioterrorism is not a curiosity but a grim reality. Hijacked aircraft and powdered anthrax caused a remarkable shift in terms of overall terrorists' assault strategy and future threats in general. Another significant development is, that in the past terrorism was practiced by a collection of individuals belonging to an identifiable organization that had a clear command and control apparatus and well defined set of political, social, or economic objectives. They generally issued communiqu├ęs taking credit for terrorist act and explaining determinants of their actions. But no one has claimed the responsibility of September 11 terrorist attacks.

Motivations, targeting, strategy, tactics and logistics, continue to evolve, in keeping with efforts on the part of terrorists to meet the challenges and to penetrate into the foolproof security arrangements to accomplish their objectives. The September 11 terrorists act specified that they be well schooled in handling aircrafts and using them as weapons and explosives equipment. They know the value of the internet, fax machines, cellular telephones and encryption. They have already been taking advantage of legal and widely available strong encryption software that makes their communications invulnerable to surveillance. How invulnerable? John Keegan, the British analyst, quotes William Crowell, former deputy director of the largest US intelligence agency, the National Security Agency: "If all the personal computers in the world were put to work on a single (strong encrypted) message, it would still take an estimated 12 million times the age of the universe to break a single message." [3]

Increasingly sophisticated and willing travelers, the terrorists have access to excellent false documentation and international contacts, and can blend easily into a local emigre community, where they can plan and execute attacks without being readily identified. Aftermath, human casualties and infrastructure destruction in New York and Washington substantiate the increasing lethality, high casualty, indiscriminate targeting, of terrorist attacks.

In the current international scenario, terrorists are increasingly likely to be motivated by campaigns of ethnic nationalism or religious extremism. Often the two go hand in hand. The United States' declaration that Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda organization as a prime suspect specified the growth of religious terrorism. Notably, militants of all faiths have an involvement in terrorist violence. Christian religious groups, such as the Aryan Nations, are active in North America, and are becoming more closely associated with the Militia Movement. Similarly, the Jewish Defense League maintains her presence in North America. In Israel and the Occupied Territories, the combination of nationalism and religious fervor manifests itself in acts of Jewish terrorism.[4]

One of the first uses of a Chemical nerve agent in a terrorist attack, by the Aum Shinri Kyo cult in Tokyo in 1995, has been widely viewed as the crossing of a threshold. This theory reinforced by evidence uncovered recently to the effect that non-state actors- sub national groups or terrorists' organizations are interested in Nuclear, Chemical and Biological (NBC) weaponry. Recent, anthrax, a small sample of what can be called the terrorism of substances- biological and chemical incidents strengthened the fear that in future terrorist acts NBC would be used. Hence, it is perceived that for higher casualty rate and attracting more attention the terrorists', certainly, utilize NBC weapons in their future activities.

Fewer incidents, greater casualties

Traditional terrorists organizations were contented to kill small numbers, rather than embark on grandiose operations causing large-scale human and physical destruction. The recent terrorists acts record indicates that the terrorists' attacks have been causing greater casualties and infrastructure damage. Figures collected by the US Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) show that during the 1970s there were a total of 8,114 terrorist incidents worldwide, which resulted in 4,978 deaths and 6,902 injured. During the 1980s there were 31,426 incidents, resulting in 70,859 deaths and 47,849 injured. The RAND-St Andrews, joint-university, database of international terrorist incidents, which has been in operation since 1968, records 2,536 incidents in the 1970s, resulting in 1975 deaths, and records 3,658 incidents in the 1980s, resulting in 4,077 deaths. During the 1980s the number of international terrorist incidents was about 50 per cent more than in the 1970s, and twice as many people were killed.[5] During the 1990s, however, the number of international terrorist incidents actually began to fall. A record 484 incidents occurred in 1991, which fell to 343 in 1992, then to 360 in 1993, to 353 in 1994 and finally to 278 in 1995. Yet as these figures fell, a greater percentage of incidents were resulting in fatalities or deaths and injuries continued to increase.[6]

On August 7, 1998 a huge car bomb was detonated in the car park of the American embassy in the heart of Nairobi, Kenya. Adjacent offices and banks were full of workers and the streets were full of cars, buses and shoppers. Hundreds of office workers had been drawn to their windows by the sound of an exploding grenade, and were then injured by a second bomb. Almost simultaneously, another bomb exploded in Dar-es-Salaam, capital of neighboring Tanzania. It was reported that the bombing in Kenya killed 201 and 5.500 people were injured, whilst the bomb in Tanzania killed 11.[7] More than the 6,347 people lost in the collapsed twin towers of the World Trade Center, in the September 11, 2001 terrorists attacks.[8] These figures relate only to international terrorism, but the evidence in respect of domestic terrorism is more problematic. Whilst there are some indications that domestic terrorism is also following this trend, particularly in Algeria and Sri Lanka. Thus, these facts indicate that casualty levels are increasing at a faster rate than the number of incidents, and therefore that individual incidents are becoming more lethal. The significant of these incidents lay not only in the level of casualties that it caused, but also in the willingness of the terrorists to inflict large numbers of indiscriminate casualties. For example, both Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam explosions killed African Muslims working in the embassies and people from more than 88 nations were killed in World Trade Center.

Why terrorism's lethality has been increasing? A number of reasons account for terrorism's increased lethality. According to Bruce Hoffman reasons behind terrorism's increasing lethality are the following:

1. The terrorists desire to obtain more and serious attention. Therefore, they consider bloody action as a viable strategy to attract the media and decision makers.

2. The terrorists have profited from past experience and have become more skilled at killing. The nefarious alliance between terrorist organizations and the rogue states have increased the lethality in the terrorists' acts.[9] The rogue states provide them the small, more sophisticated, and deadlier weapons.

3. The active role played by states in supporting and sponsoring terrorism. This support has enhanced the striking power and capabilities of ordinary terrorist organizations, transforming some groups into entities more akin to elite commando units than the stereotypical Molotov-cocktail wielding or crude pipe-bomb manufacturing anarchist or radical leftist.

4. The overall increase during the past 15 years of terrorism motivated by a religious imperative encapsulates the confluence of new adversaries, motivations, and tactics affecting terrorist patterns today.

5. The means of terrorism has become accessible to anyone who contains a grievance, an agenda, a purpose. These means and methods can be easily obtained at bookstores, from mail-order publishers, on CD-ROM, or over the Internet. Relying on commercially obtainable bomb-making manuals and operational guidebooks, even the amateur terrorist can be just as deadly and destructive-and even more difficult to track and anti-than his professional counterpart.

6. While on the one hand terrorism is attracting amateurs, on the other hand the sophistication and operational competence of the professional terrorists are increasing. These professionals are becoming demonstrably more adept in their tradecraft of death and destruction; more formidable in their capacity for tactical modification and innovation in their methods of attack; and more able to operate for sustained periods while avoiding detection, interception, or capture.

7. The terrorists today tend to claim credit for their attacks less frequently.[10]

The growth of religious terrorism

The religion is fast becoming the prime motivation for terrorist acts.[11] The late twentieth century saw a resurgence of holy terror* The kind practiced by the Zealots-Sicarii, the Assassins, and the Thugs. This involves all of the world's major religions, from Christian right-wing white supremacists, radical Jews, militant Sikhs, and Islamic fundamentalists, and has been manifested all around the world: from Europe, North America, the South Asian subcontinent, Northeast Asia, to the Middle East. Of these groups, those that have been most responsible for this trend are Islamic fundamentalists; Jewish extremists; millenarian religious cults and Christian orientated right-wing groups, notably in the USA.[12] While analyzing religious terrorism Bruce Hoffman argued, "religious terrorists have engaged in moral lethal attacks primarily because they perceive violence to be a sacramental act, or divine duty, executed in direct response to some theological demand or imperative."[13]

Some of the most significant terrorists acts of recent years have had some religious element present. These include:

> The 1993 bombing of New York City's World Trade Center by Islamic radicals who deliberately attempted to topple one of the twin towers onto the other;

> The series of 13 near-simultaneous car and truck bombings that shook Bombay, India, in February 1993, killing 400 persons and injuring more than 1000 others, in reprisal for the destruction of an Islamic shrine in that country;

> The December 1994 hijacking of an Air France passenger jet by Islamic terrorists belonging to the Algerian Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and the attendant foiled plot to blow up themselves, the aircraft, and the 283 passengers on board precisely when the plane was over Paris, thus causing the flaming wreckage to plunge into the crowded city below;

> The March 1995 sarin nerve-gas attack on the Tokyo subway system, perpetrated by an apocalyptic Japanese religious cult (Aum and Tanzania in August 1998 that killed 212-257 and injured some 5000-5500 others;[14]

> On March 20,2000 thirty-five Sikhs were killed by Indian Army in Chatti pura, and in Indian Held Kashmir;

> On September 11, 2001 the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington by hijacked commercial aircrafts; and

> Recently (last week of October 2001), more than 25 Muslims murdered by the Hindu extremists in Mali Gahun, Maharashtra (India).

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (NBC) terrorism

Nuclear, Biological and Chemical weapons are inherently terrifying. They evoke moral dread and visceral revulsion out of proportion to their lethality. In recent years terrorists have been acquiring crude chemical and biological agents, and some have plotted or threatened to use them. In January 1999, the then US President Bill Clinton, stated that the US would be subject to a terrorist attack involving Chemical or Biological weapons within the next few years.[15] However, the recent years terrorists record indicates that the possibility of using Biological and Chemical weapons is more than the Nuclear weapons. The reason being the technological problems associated with the nuclear weapons manufacturing. Consequently, the United States Department of Defense is leading a federal effort to train the first responders in 120 American cities to be prepared to act in case of a domestic terrorist incident involving NBC agents.[16]

At the same time, one cannot rule out the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons in totality, in future terrorists' acts, because of the established fact, i.e. state sponsored terrorism. Paul Wilkinson argued that, "many terrorists movements are directly encouraged, sponsored and aided by regimes in order to weaken or subvert rival states."[17] It follows from this intimacy of these connections that the pro-terrorists states assist the terrorists' organizations by providing nuclear radioactive material. Moreover, the emergence of a black market in nuclear materials makes clear that the risk of nuclear terrorism is growing. For example, three seizers of plutonium and one of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in Germany took place during the summer of 1993, showing the emergence of a black market in nuclear materials being smuggled out of the former Soviet Union.[18] How much HEU is needed to make a nuclear bomb? A research team at the University of California found that three kilograms would be sufficient. By means of computer modeling of a simple fission weapon design, they found a nuclear a nuclear yield equivalent to more than 100 tons of high explosives could be achieved with only one kilograms of HEU and a yield of half that of the Hiroshima bomb with five kilograms.[19]

Why could terrorists decide to use the NBC? As discussed earlier that terrorists motivations are changing. A new breed of terrorists- including ad hoc groups motivated by religious conviction or revenge, violent right-wing extremists, and apocalyptic and millenarian cults, appears more likely than the terrorists of the past to commit acts of extreme violence. The overriding religious belief in Armageddon establishes a strong motive for some cults to use the NBC weapons. Jessica Stern argued:

"Religiously motivated terrorists might decide to use weapons of mass destruction, particularly biological agents, in the belief that they were emulating God. The fifth plague with which God punishes the Pharaoh in the story of the Israelites' Exodus from Egypt is murrain, a group of cattle diseases that includes anthrax. In I Samuel 5: 9, God turns against the Philistines with a very great destruction, killing them with a pestilence that produces Emerods in secret parts...Some terrorists might feel they were following God's example by employing these agents."[20]

The NBC weapons are intrinsically indiscriminate, and suit to terrorists' strategy to inflict large numbers of indiscriminate casualties. The usages of these weapons not only multitudinously increase the lethality of the terrorists' acts, but the government of a country attacked with such weapons would have difficulty in controlling panic. Because chemical and biological weapons are silent killers, an attack could occur at any time without warning.

The NBC weapons' components and know-how are available in the black market. Importantly, unlike nuclear weapons, the materials and tools required to create biological warfare agents are easily accessible and cheap, which is why this kind of weapon is often referred to as the poor man's nuclear bomb. A state of the art biological laboratory could be built and made operational with as little as $10,000 worth off-the-shelf equipment and could be housed in a small room.[21] In addition, hundreds of tons of nuclear material, the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, are stored at vulnerable sites throughout the former Soviet Union, guarded only by underpaid, hungry, and disheartened people. At least eight thefts of materials (weapons-usable) that could be used to make nuclear weapons have been confirmed.[22] Significantly, there are many cases of theft of medical isotopes and other sources of radiation. These incidents are often overlooked because radioisotopes cannot be used to make detonable nuclear bombs. But terrorists could use them to draw attention to their cause, to wreak havoc, and to terrorize civilians. Notably, many religious cults are capable of purchasing or funding the research and development of NBC weapons, because of great wealth that they acquire from their membership. The rogue states also possess these weapons. The terrorists might be able to acquire chemical and biological agents from rogue states favorable to their cause.[23]

It is undeniable that the theoretical knowledge required to develop NBC weapons is readily available, and that given time, skilled individuals can engineer that knowledge `into a weapon. Hence, the terrorists' organizations are capable to acquire the different types of NBC weapons from different sources. The fundamental issue in assessing this trend is whether these groups are capable in using these weapons, accurately. Analysts have consensus that it's easy to use chemicals and biological agents to poison agricultural commodities, infect livestock, or gas passengers on trains or planes. Some of them consider that nuclear weapons are extremely difficult to manufacture. However, distinction must be drawn between the kind of military weapons, which states strive to develop and the rougher types of devices which terrorists would be satisfied with. A Physics PhD student could design a crude nuclear device, and the terrorists' requirement is the radiological bombs, in which radioactive materials are packed around a conventional bomb and an incendiary material. With this type of weapon the explosion leads to a fireball, shooting the radioactive material up into the air, which than falls back to earth, scattering over a wide area. The primary purpose of such weapons is to spread radioactive contamination rather than cause casualties through blast effects.[24]

There are number of organizations, which had revealed interests in these deadly agents. For example, Christian Patriots had shown interests in biological weapons. Biological weapons have the potential to be as deadly as nuclear bombs. For instance, 100 kilograms of anthrax could kill up to 3 million people if dispersed under optimal conditions.[25] Survivalists and white Supremacists were implicated in three separate cases involving biological agents in 1995. In March two members of the Minnesota Patriots Council were arrested for producing ricin with which to assassinate a deputy US marshal who had served papers on one of them for tax violations. In May, just six weeks after the Aum Shinrikiyo incident, Larry Wayne Harris, former member of neo-Nazi organizations, bought three vials of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, which killed nearly a quarter of Europe's population in the mid-fourteen century. In December a Survivalist was arrested for trying to carry 130 grams of ricin across the border into Canada.[26] However, from known conspiracies it appears that no terrorist group has even attempted to develop a nuclear explosive device, and there have been only a few cases of groups attempting to purchase a nuclear device. Instead, the use of radioactive materials of contamination, either through a contamination bomb or otherwise, has been the preferred option for nuclear terrorism. But what few incidents have occurred, have mainly been in the 1990s. Therefore, it is too early to conclude the role of nuclear weapons in the NBC terrorism.

Conclusion

Throughout the history, Terrorism flourishes on a fear psychosis. By manipulating fear in a special way, terrorists have always been able to effect human behavior in a fashion disproportionate in their effort. The September 2001, terrorists' attacks were a powerful indicator that at least some groups are willing to perpetrate acts of unconstraint violence and indiscriminate mass killing. In 1990s, a growing number of incidents broaden the perceptions of the potential threat that radical religious cults can pose to society as a whole. In addition, a major trend has been the terrorists' acquisition of increasingly sophisticated and lethal weapons, like the NBC weapons. The emerging trends are mainly the products of the technological advancements and spread. Hence, these trends are leading to a new era of indiscriminate violence, more dangerous and deadly than in the past.

Notes:

1. Jessica Stern, The Ultimate Terrorists (London: Harvard University Press, 2000) pp. 15-17. See also Louis Rene Beres, Terrorism and Global Security: The Nuclear Threat (Colorado: Westview Press, 1979) p. 8.

2. The term terrorism first came into use at the time of the "Reign of Terror" in France during the Revolution; it was employed in connection with the intimidating practice of the government in power from 1789 to 1794. As pointed out in the Study prepared by the UN Secretariat for the Sixth Committee, this meaning of terrorism has undergone major evolution so that it "now seems to be mainly applied to actions by individual or group of individuals." Roda Mushkat, "Technical Impediments on the way to a Universal Definition of International Terrorism", in Verinder Grover, ed. Encyclopedia of International Terrorism, Vol. 1 (New Delhi: Deep & Deep Publications PVT. LTD, 2002) pp. 14, 15.

3. George F. Will, "The Next Threat: Weapons of Mass Disruption", Newsweek (October 29, 2001) p. 17.

4. 'Trends in terrorism', Report 2000/2001, http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/eng/miscdocs/200001_e.html

5. Nadine Gurr and Benjamin Cole, The New Face Of Terrorism Threats from Weapons of Mass Destruction (London: I. B. Tauris Publishers, 2000) pp. 22, 23.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid. pp. 27,28.

8. Sally Jenkins, "The Quest for 6,347 Identities", Washington Post (September 27, 2001) http://www.washintonpost. Com/ac2/wp-dyn/A32203-2001Sep26?language=printer.

9. In its 1997 review of global terrorism patterns, the U.S. State Department designated seven countries as terrorism sponsors: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. With the exception of the Sudan, which was added in 1993, each of these countries has remained on the list of terrorism patron-states for more than a decade.

10. Bruce Hoffman, "Terrorism Trends and Prospects", in Ian O. Lesser, Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David F. Ronfeldt, Michele Zanini, Brian Michael Jenkins, Countering the New Terrorism, www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR989/

11. In 1968 none of the 11 identifiable international terrorist groups could be classified as 'religious.' In 1980 the first modern religious terrorist groups emerged following the Iranian revolution, but comprised only two of the 64 active terrorist groups. By 1992 that number had risen to 11, comprising a quarter of all the terrorist groups that carried out attacks in those years. By 1994, the trend had accelerated, and 16 (or one-third) of the 49 identifiable groups could be classified as religious in character or motivation. In 1995 that number had risen again to 25 out of 58 known active terrorist groups, or 42 per cent. The linkage between this trend and the trend towards increasing lethality in terrorist attacks is evident from the fact that although religious terrorists committed only 25 per cent of the recorded international terrorist incidents in 1995, they were responsible for 58 per cent of the fatalities and carried out all of the attacks in 1995 where there were more than eighty fatalities.

12. Nadine Gurr and Benjamin Cole, Op. cit, pp.28, 29.

13. Ibid. p. 30.

14. Bruce Hoffman, "Terrorism Trends and Prospects", Op. cit.

15. Nadine Gurr and Benjamin Cole, Op. cit. p. 2.

16. L. R. Reddy, BIO-Terrorism (New Delhi: Efficient Offset Printers, 2002) p. 6.

17. Paul Wilkinson, "Terrorism: International Dimensions" in William Gutteridge, The New Terrorism (London: Mansell Publishing Limited, 1986) p.29.

18. These seizures were relatively small compared to the seizures of HEU that were also reported to have taken place: one involving six pounds in St. Petersburg in March 1994; 4.5 pounds in Lithuania in 1992, three kilograms in Czech Republic in 1994 etc. K. Bhushan and G. Katyal, Nuclear Biological and Chemical Warfare (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 2002) p 137.

19. Ibid.

20. Jessica Stern, Op. cit. pp. 70,71.

21. M. G. Chitkara and Girdhari Sharma, International Terrorism (New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation, 2002) p. 89.

22. The Russian officials have repeatedly denied that any smuggling case involved weapon-grade nuclear material, which, according to the strict definition, is uranium enriched to more than 90 percent U-235 or plutonium with less than 7 percent Pu-240. Ibid. p. 97.

23. The United States department lists Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, and Syria as the states possessing chemical and biological weapons and supporters of terrorism.

24. Nadine Gurr and Benjamin Cole, Op. cit. pp 44, 45.

25. Ibid. pp. 3-4.

26. Ibid. pp 7-8.
 Shinrikyo) that killed a dozen persons and wounded 3796 others; reportedly the group also planned to carry out identical attacks in the United States;

> The bombing of an Oklahoma City federal office building in April 1995, where 168 persons perished, by two Christian Patriots seeking to foment a nationwide race revolution;

> The wave of bombings unleashed in France by the Algerian GIA between July and October 1995, of metro trains, outdoor markets cafes, schools, and popular tourist spots, that killed eight persons and wounded more than 180 others;

> The assassination in November 1995 of Israeli Prime Minister Itzhak Rabin by a religious Jewish extremist and its attendant significance as the purported first step in a campaign of mass murder designed to disrupt the peace process;

> The Hamas suicide bombers who turned the tide of Israel's national elections with a string of bloody attacks that killed 60 persons between February and March 1996;

> The Egyptian Islamic militants who carried out a brutal machinegun and hand-grenade attack on a group of Western tourists outside their Cairo hotel in April 1996 that killed 18;

> The June 1996 truck bombing of a U.S. Air Force barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, where 19 persons perished, by religious militants opposed to the reigning al-Saud regime;

> The unrelenting bloodletting by Islamic extremists in Algeria itself that has claimed the lives of more than an estimated 75,000 persons there since 1992;

> The massacre in November 1997 of 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians by terrorists belonging to the Gamat al-Islamiya (Islamic Group) at the Temple of Queen Hatshe put in Luxor, Egypt; and

> The bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya
March 29, 2012

Spreading Terrorism One Burnt Quran at a Time: How American Christian Fanatics Fan

Spreading Terrorism One Burnt Quran at a Time: How American Christian Fanatics Fan

By mikelong


Beware...the "Doctor" is in......

Which is about as good as going to see Doctor Strangelove...
His prescription: in injection of bigotry and hate

Ads by Google

This is a defining moment in our national discourse...what will we show?
Before I read the news article (cited at bottom) concerning "Dr." Terry Jones, I decided to go to the source. The Dove World Outreach Center has an official website at doveworld.org.

After reaching this destination I clicked on the prompt link to another doveworld.org page entitled "Ten Reasons to Burn a Koran".

I was intrigued.

On this page the author goes on to justify, at least in his or her own mind, how a book sacred to over a billion people worldwide, and many, many Americans, should be burned..

Reason number 2 states that "The Koran does not have an eternal origin. It is not recorded in heaven...."

I rolled my eyes....

"It's writings are human in origin..."

Now the inevitable face-palm....

Somewhere, I suppose, this Doctor was able to look into "heaven" and read documents of some type. Perhaps he has an extra special search engine via the web.

So this is one reason that the Quran needs to be burned?

Reason number 3 states that "The Koran's teachings includes Arabian idolatry, paganism, rites and rituals. These are demonic, an ongoing satanic stronghold under which Moslems and the world suffer."

I will leave the other 8 reasons that a huge disrespect should be paid towards over a billion people to you the reader, for my purpose is not to discuss the ridiculous, biased, and intolerant expressions of this "church".

Yet, I wish to show how this "p.h.d." mind, or those Mr. Jones sponsors, work to erase the political, social, and economic development/evolution of the Near East, Europe, and Asia, and instead install the standard "false prophet" imagery read in the Book of Revelations.

"By faith and not by sight" comes to an all new meaning here....by faith one must follow the misguided Jones...which means that one has to ignore all the evidence to the contrary....

Now, for the main point at hand...

The article that attracted my original interest was related to a statement released by General Patreus, wherein he specifically identifies Mr. Jones and his "Outreach" center as a threat to the safety of Americans.

People like Mr. Jones (for he is no Doctor in my book) and organizations like Dove World Outreach demonstrate how people around the world can look upon Americans as ignorant, radical, racist, bigoted, and hypocritical.

It is this type of behavior practiced blatantly that makes people around the world, as well as Americans wary of what type of attitudes are brewing under the social crust of tolerance and "political correctness."

While many Christians, including those at the Dove Outreach Center, cry out against the Muslim Community Center expansion project in Manhattan, the story of Mr. Jones' organization and what kind of "outreach" this place does remains seemingly unimportant.... What kinds of ideas are concocted and indoctrinated into young minds through this "outreach" center?

With "outreach" centers like this, it doesn't surprise me that there is so much rumor milling and suspicion concerning the Manhattan center project. Projection of self onto the "other" is a very useful tactic of manipulation.

As Osama bin Laden is used in the U.S. and other majority "Christian" states to stir up anti-Muslim flames that fuel illegal wars and the wholesale death of innocent civillians in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mr. Jones becomes the poster boy for American-Christian imperialism abroad, and makes the seemingly peaceful "Outreach Center" a training ground for Christian radicals bent on destroying Muslims.

Is all this too complex for the "Doctor" or his "outreach" group? Or is he and his group being the "change they want to see?"

This is an ongoing issue that I have with Christian imperialists, meaning those who choose to push their religion on others as opposed to exercising mutual respect. They read the Bible, particularly Revelations, and they brood for religious conflict and war. Instead of getting a real education, and a p.h.d. in a substantial topic people like Jones look to raise their names and financial status in the same way that radical imams in Iran do....through the peddling of fear, false stereotypes, and peer pressure.

While I am a firm advocate of the freedom of speech, I cannot stand for the freedom to blind and handicap people. While they may believe that they are "educating" people, this "ministry" is crippling the ability of people to think with independent and open minds about others they don't understand. This organization makes people not want to understand....

"By faith and not by sight" as the old gospel song goes....

This is an easy mantra to believe and follow when it is the blind leading the blinded....

I look forward, as sadistic as that is, to how this new wrinkle to the "rehonoring of America" plays out.

Will Americans speak out against this obvious symbol of ignorance, intolerance, bigotry, and hatred?

Can we call terrorism where we see it? I can, and I see it being spread at a training camp in Florida.

Can we realize that body counts, in terms of physically killed and wounded, do not define or confine terrorist acts? For, the wounding or death of the "self" and cognitive ability are equal contributors to personal and social hardship and destruction.

Jihad from jail: Islamic terrorists using network website MuslimPrisoner.com to preach hatred from behind bars By CHRIS GREENWOOD/24/3/12

Jihad from jail: Islamic terrorists using network website Muslim

Prisoner.com to preach hatred from behind bars

By CHRIS GREENWOOD

UPDATED: 13:45 GMT, 24 February 2012
Created 11:52 AM on 19th February 2012


Britain's most dangerous Islamic terrorists are exploiting a security loophole to spread their message of hate from behind bars.

Not only have they been able to radicalise fellow inmates, they have also appealed to a new generation of supporters around the world.

Dozens of unrepentant extremists have been exposed as glorying in their fanaticism and encouraging others to consider further atrocities.

Hatred: The masthead of MuslimPrisoners.com includes images of extremists such as Abu Hamza, centre,
Among them are key figures in almost every major terrorist conspiracy of the past decade, including the July 2005 attacks in London. They include hate cleric Abu Hamza, lone-wolf attacker Roshonara Choudhry and failed BA bomber Rajib Karim.
The inmates have been able to voice their hate-filled opinions via a website apparently run by former members of a banned extremist organisation. Some boasted they were studying extremist material.

More...
Saudi Arabian millionaire 'with links to 9/11 terror attacks' living in luxury London home while working for state oil company
Deporting hate preacher Abu Qatada 'could take two years' and £1m in benefits and surveillance... even if Britain wins battle to kick him out
Siberian legal eagle is now fighting a ban on the Gita over its alleged 'extremist' content
Would-be 'Capitol bomber in fake suicide vest' foiled by FBI sting was under surveillance in year-long probe
News of the security breach sparked outrage and one MP called on the prison authorities to tighten up their systems. It comes at a sensitive time for the Government in the aftermath of the decision to release hate preacher Abu Qatada.
Steve McCabe, a Labour MP who sits on the Home Affairs Committee, said some of the material ‘sounds dangerously close to incitement’.

He said: ‘If the prison authorities claim they are monitoring and censoring material, then they are clearly not doing it effectively. It’s time the regime was tightened up.’

At the centre of the scandal is a website, www.muslimprisoners.com, which offers to forward letters to more than 50 Muslim prisoners and display their replies. Transcripts of dozens of letters were posted as the website became a key information exchange and networking point for extremist sympathisers. The website offers advice on getting letters and presents to inmates.
One letter is written by Abdulla Ahmed Ali, the ringleader of a plot to blow up transatlantic airliners with liquid bombs. Ali, serving a 40-year sentence, hails the Taliban and says Muslims should ‘sacrifice their lives and limbs’ against the West.
The website also includes a list of high-profile Muslim inmates and the prison in which they are held.


Islamist: Abdulla Ahmed Ali, left, hails NATO defeat in Afghanistan on website set up by Abdul Muhid, right


Holy war: Messages from hate preachers Abu Qatada, left, and Abu Hamza, right, were on the website

It is said to have been set up by Abdul Muhid, a convicted terrorist and former member of Al-Muhajiroun, a banned group linked to many of the prisoners. He refused to comment last night. The website has been taken offline. A Ministry of Justice spokesman said it took the risks posed by extremist offenders seriously and staff were trained to be alert to the signs of radicalism.

nDozens of British Muslim extremists are being trained by militants to join a ‘holy war’ in Somalia, it was claimed yesterday.

Intelligence officials say that up to 50 volunteers may have been recruited to fight for al-Shabaab, the Al Qaeda-inspired terrorist group which controls parts of the lawless state.

lTerrorism in Indiais primarily attributable to religious communities and Naxalite radical movements.

Terrorism in India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Terrorism in India is primarily attributable to religious communities and Naxalite radical movements.

The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu and Kashmir, Mumbai, Central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sister States (independence and autonomy movements). As of 2006, at least 232 of the country’s 608 districts were afflicted, at differing intensities, by various insurgent and terrorist movements.[1] In August 2008, National Security Advisor M K Narayanan has said that there are as many as 800 terrorist cells operating in the country.[2]


1 Chronology of major incidents
2 Western India
2.1 Maharashtra
2.1.1 Mumbai
2.1.2 Pune
3 Jammu and Kashmir
4 Northern and Northwestern India
4.1 Bihar
4.2 Punjab
4.3 New Delhi
4.3.1 2011 High court bombing
4.3.2 2007 Delhi security summit
4.3.3 2005 Delhi bombings
4.3.4 2001 Attack on Indian parliament
4.4 Uttar Pradesh
4.4.1 2005 Ayodhya attacks
4.4.2 2010 Varanasi blasts
4.4.3 2006 Varanasi blasts
5 Northeastern India
5.1 Nagaland
5.2 Assam
5.3 Tripura
5.4 Manipur
5.5 Mizoram
6 South India
6.1 Karnataka
6.1.1 Bengaluru
6.2 Andhra Pradesh
6.3 Tamil Nadu
6.3.1 1998 Coimbatore bombings
6.4 Kerala
7 In popular culture
8 See also
9 References
10 Notes
11 External links
Chronology of major incidents

[show] v t e

Terrorist attacks in India

(since 2001)

Chronology of major terrorist incidents in India

Western India

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Mumbai has been the most preferred target for most terrorist organizations, primarily the separatist forces from Pakistan.[citation needed] Over the past few years there have been a series of attacks, including explosions in local trains in July 2006, and the most recent and unprecedented attacks of 26 November 2008, when two of the prime hotels, a landmark train station, and a Jewish Chabad house, in South Mumbai, were attacked and sieged.[citation needed]

Terrorist attacks in Mumbai include:

12 March 1993 - Series of 13 bombs go off, killing 257
6 December 2002 - Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 2
27 January 2003 - Bomb goes off on a bicycle in Vile Parle, killing 1
14 March 2003 - Bomb goes off in a train in Mulund, killing 10
28 July 2003 - Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 4
25 August 2003 - Two Bombs go off in cars near the Gateway of India and Zaveri Bazaar, killing 50

11 July 2006 - Series of seven bombs go off in trains, killing 209
26 November 2008 to 29 November 2008 - Coordinated series of attacks, killing at least 172.

13 July 2011 - Three coordinated bomb explosions at different locations, killing 26
Pune


Terrorist attacks elsewhere in Maharashtra:

13 February 2010 - a bomb explosion at the German Bakery in Pune killed fourteen people, and injured at least 60 more

Jammu and Kashmir

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

Armed insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir has killed tens of thousands to date.

Northern and Northwestern India

Bihar

The existence of certain insurgent groups, like the CPI-ML, Peoples war, and MCC, is a major concern, as they frequently attack local police and politicians. Poor governance and the law and order system in Bihar have helped increase the menace caused by the militias. The State has witnessed many massacres by these groups. The main victims of the violence by these groups are helpless people (including women, children, and the elderly) who are killed in massacres. The state police is ill-equipped to take on the AK-47s and AK-56s of the militants with their vintage 303 rifles. The militants have also used landmines to kill ambush police parties.
The root cause of the militant activities in the state is huge disparity between the caste groups. After Independence, land reforms were supposed to be implemented, thereby giving the low caste and the poor a share in the lands, which was until then held mostly by high caste people. However, due to caste based divisive politics in the state, land reforms were never implemented properly. This led to a growing sense of alienation among the low caste.

Communist groups like CPI-ML, MCC, and People's War took advantage of this and instigated the low caste people to take up arms against establishment, which was seen as a tool in the hands of rich. They started taking up lands of the rich by force, killing the high caste people. The high caste people resorted to use of force by forming their own army, Ranvir Sena, to take on the naxalites. The State witnessed a bloody period in which the groups tried to prove their supremacy through mass killings. The police remained a mute witness to these killings, as they lacked the means to take any action.

The Ranvir Sena has now significantly weakened with the arrest of its top brass. The other groups are still active.

There have been arrests in various parts of the country, particularly those made by the Delhi and Mumbai police in the recent past, indicating that extremist/terrorist outfits have been spreading their networks in this state. There is a strong suspicion that Bihar is also being used as a transit point by the small-arms, fake currency and drug dealers entering from Nepal and terrorists reportedly infiltrating through Nepal and Bangladesh.

In recent years, these attacks by various caste groups have come down with better government being practised.

Punjab

The Sikhs form a majority in the Indian state of Punjab. During the 1970s, a section of Sikh leaders cited various political, social, and cultural issues to allege that the Sikhs were being cornered and ignored in Indian Society, and Sikhism was being absorbed into the Hindu fold. This gradually led to an armed movement in the Punjab, led by some key figures demanding a separate state for Sikhs.

The insurgency intensified during the 1980s, when the movement turned violent and the name Khalistan resurfaced and sought independence from the Indian Union. Led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale who, though not in favour in the creation of Khalistan, was also not against it, they began using militancy to stress the movement's demands. Soon things turned extreme with India alleging that neighbouring Pakistan supported these militants, who, by 1983-84, had begun to enjoy widespread support among Sikhs.
In 1984, Operation Blue Star was conducted by the Indian government to stem out the movement. It involved an assault on the Golden Temple complex, which Sant Bhindranwale had fortified in preparation of an army assault. Indira Gandhi, India's then prime minister, ordered the military to storm the temple, who eventually had to use tanks. After a 74 hour firefight, the army successfully took control of the temple. In doing so, it damaged some portions of the Akal Takht, the Sikh Reference Library, and the Golden Temple itself. According to Indian government sources, 83 army personnel were killed and 249 were injured. Militant casualties were 493 killed and 86 injured.

During the same year, the assassination of Indira Gandhi by two Sikh bodyguards, believed to be driven by the Golden Temple affair, resulted in widespread anti-Sikh riots, especially in New Delhi. Following Operation Black Thunder in 1988, Punjab Police, first under Julio Ribeiro and then under KPS Gill, together with the Indian Army, eventually succeeded in pushing the movement underground.

In 1985, Sikh terrorists bombed an Air India flight from Canada to India, killing all 329 people on board Air India Flight 182. It was the worst terrorist act in Canada's history.

The ending of Sikh militancy and the desire for a Khalistan catalyzed when the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, handed all intelligence material concerning Punjab militancy to the Indian government, as a goodwill gesture. The Indian government used that intelligence to put an end to those who were behind attacks in India and militancy.

The ending of overt Sikh militancy in 1993 led to a period of relative calm, punctuated by militant acts (for example, the assassination of Punjab CM, Beant Singh, in 1995) attributed to half a dozen or so operating Sikh militant organisations. These organisations include Babbar Khalsa International, Khalistan Commando Force, Khalistan Liberation Force, and Khalistan Zindabad Force.

New Delhi

2011 High court bombing

The 2011 Delhi bombing took place in the Indian capital Delhi on Wednesday, 7 September 2011 at 10:14 local time outside Gate No. 5 of the Delhi High Court, where a suspected briefcase bomb was planted.[5] The blast killed 12 people and injured 76.

2007 Delhi security summit

The Delhi summit on security took place on 14 February 2007 with the foreign ministers of China, India, and Russia meeting in Hyderabad House, Delhi, India, to discuss terrorism, drug trafficking, reform of the United Nations, and the security situations in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, and North Korea.[3][4]

2005 Delhi bombings

29 October 2005 Delhi bombings

Three explosions went off in the Indian capital of New Delhi on 29 October 2005, which killed more than 60 people and injured at least 200 others. The high number of casualties made the bombings the deadliest attack in India in 2005. It was followed by 5 bomb blasts on 13 September 2008.

2001 Attack on Indian parliament

Terrorists on 13 December 2001 attacked the Parliament of India, resulting in a 45-minute gun battle in which 9 policemen and parliament staff were killed. All five terrorists were also killed by the security forces and were identified as Pakistani nationals. The attack took place around 11:40 am (IST), minutes after both Houses of Parliament had adjourned for the day. The suspected terrorists dressed in commando fatigues entered Parliament in a car through the VIP gate of the building. Displaying Parliament and Home Ministry security stickers, the vehicle entered the Parliament premises. The terrorists set off massive blasts and used AK-47 rifles, explosives, and grenades for the attack. Senior Ministers and over 200 Members of Parliament were inside the Central Hall of Parliament when the attack took place. Security personnel sealed the entire premises, which saved many lives.

Uttar Pradesh

2005 Ayodhya attacks

2005 Ram Janmabhoomi attack in Ayodhya

The long simmering Ayodhya crisis finally culminated in a terrorist attack on the site of the 16th century Babri Masjid. The ancient Masjid in Ayodhya was demolished on 5 July 2005. Following the two-hour gunfight between Lashkar-e-Toiba terrorists based in Pakistan and Indian police, in which six terrorists were killed, opposition parties called for a nationwide strike with the country's leaders condemning the attack, believed to have been masterminded by Dawood Ibrahim.

2010 Varanasi blasts


2010 Varanasi bombing


On 7 December 2010, another blast occurred in Varanasi, that killed immediately a toddler, and set off a stampede in which 20 people, including four foreigners, were injured.[5] The responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Islamist millitant group Indian Mujahideen.[6]

2006 Varanasi blasts
2006 Varanasi bombings

A series of blasts occurred across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi on 7 March 2006. Fifteen people are reported to have been killed and as many as 101 others were injured. No one has accepted responsibility for the attacks, but it is speculated that the bombings were carried out in retaliation of the arrest of a Lashkar-e-Toiba agent in Varanasi earlier in February 2006.

On 5 April 2006 the Indian police arrested six Islamic militants, including a cleric who helped plan bomb blasts. The cleric is believed to be a commander of a banned Bangladeshi Islamic militant group, Harkatul Jihad-al Islami, and is linked to the Inter-Services Intelligence, the Pakistani spy agency.[7]
Northeastern India

Main article: Insurgency in North-East India
Northeastern India consists of seven states (also known as the seven sisters): Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Nagaland. Tensions exists between these states and the central government, as well as amongst the tribal people, who are natives of these states, and migrant peoples from other parts of India.

The states have accused New Delhi of ignoring the issues concerning them. It is this feeling which has led the natives of these states to seek greater participation in self-governance. There are existing territorial disputes between Manipur and Nagaland.

There is a rise of insurgent activities and regional movements in the northeast, especially in the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Tripura. Most of these organisations demand independent state status or increased regional autonomy and sovereignty.

Northeastern regional tension has eased of late with Indian and state governments' concerted effort to raise the living standards of the people in these regions. However, militancy still exists in this region of India supported by external sources.

Nagaland

The first and perhaps the most significant insurgency was in Nagaland from the early 1950s until it was finally quelled in the early 1980s through a mixture of repression and co-optation. The National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM), demands an independent Nagaland and has carried out several attacks on Indian military installations in the region. According to government officials, 599 civilians, 235 security forces, and 862 terrorists have lost their lives between 1992 and 2000.

On 14 June 2001, a ceasefire agreement was signed between the government of India and the NSCN-IM, which had received widespread approval and support in Nagaland. Terrorist outfits such as the Naga National Council-Federal (NNC-F) and the National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) also welcomed the development.

Certain neighbouring states, especially Manipur, raised serious concerns over the ceasefire. They feared that NSCN would continue insurgent activities in its state and demanded New Delhi scrap the ceasefire deal and renew military action. Despite the ceasefire, the NSCN has continued its insurgency.[citation needed]
Assam
After Nagaland, Assam is the most volatile state in the region. Beginning in 1979, the indigenous people of Assam demanded that the illegal immigrants who had emigrated from Bangladesh to Assam be detected and deported. The movement led by All Assam Students Union began non-violently with satyagraha, boycotts, picketing, and courting arrests.

Those protesting frequently came under police action. In 1983 an election was conducted, which was opposed by the movement leaders. The election led to widespread violence. The movement finally ended after the movement leaders signed an agreement (called the Assam Accord) with the central government on 15 August 1985.
Under the provisions of this accord, anyone who entered the state illegally between January 1966 and March 1971 was allowed to remain but was disenfranchised for ten years, while those who entered after 1971 faced expulsion. A November 1985 amendment to the Indian citizenship law allows non-citizens who entered Assam between 1961 and 1971 to have all the rights of citizenship except the right to vote for a period of ten years.

New Delhi also gave special administration autonomy to the Bodos in the state. However, the Bodos demanded a separate Bodoland, which led to a clash between the Bengalis, the Bodos, and the Indian military resulting in hundreds of deaths.
There are several organisations that advocate the independence of Assam. The most prominent of these is the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA). Formed in 1979, the ULFA has two main goals: the independence of Assam and the establishment of a socialist government.

The ULFA has carried out several terrorist attacks in the region targeting the Indian Military and non-combatants. The group assassinates political opponents, attacks police and other security forces, blasts railroad tracks, and attacks other infrastructure facilities. The ULFA is believed to have strong links with the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), Maoists, and the Naxalites.
It is also believed that they carry out most of their operations from the Kingdom of Bhutan. Because of ULFA's increased visibility, the Indian government outlawed the group in 1986 and declared Assam a troubled area. Under pressure from New Delhi, Bhutan carried a massive operation to drive out the ULFA militants from its territory.

Backed by the Indian Army, Thimphu was successful in killing more than a thousand terrorists and extraditing many more to India while sustaining only 120 casualties. The Indian military undertook several successful operations aimed at countering future ULFA terrorist attacks, but the ULFA continues to be active in the region. In 2004, the ULFA targeted a public school in Assam, killing 19 children and 5 adults.
Assam remains the only state in the northeast where terrorism is still a major issue. The Indian Military was successful in dismantling terrorist outfits in other areas, but have been criticised by human rights groups for allegedly using harsh methods when dealing with terrorists.

On 18 September 2005, a soldier was killed in Jiribam, Manipur, near the Manipur-Assam border, by members of the ULFA.

On 14th march 2011 militants of the Ranjan Daimary-led faction ambushed patrolling troop of BSF when on way from Bangladoba in Chirang district of Assam to Ultapani in Kokrajhar killing 8 jawans. [8]

Tripura

Tripura witnessed a surge in terrorist activities in the 1990s. New Delhi blamed Bangladesh for providing a safe haven to the insurgents operating from its territory. The area under control of the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council was increased after a tripartite agreement between New Delhi, the state government of Tripura, and the Council. The government has since brought the movement under control, and the government of Tripura has so far succeeded to limit the terrorist activities.

Manipur

In Manipur, militants formed an organisation known as the People's Liberation Army. Their main goal was to unite the Meitei tribes of Burma and establish an independent state of Manipur. However, the movement was thought to have been suppressed after a fierce clash with Indian security forces in the mid 1990s.

On 18 September 2005, six separatist rebels were killed in fighting between the Zomi Revolutionary Army and the Zomi Revolutionary Front in the Churachandpur District.


tunrest_050920073410 ambushed and killed] by 20 rebels from the Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL) terrorist organization, armed with AK-56 rifles, in the village of Nariang, 22 miles southwest of Manipur's capital Imphal. "Unidentified rebels using automatic weapons ambushed a road patrol of the army's Gorkha Rifles killing eight on the spot," said a spokesman for the Indian government.

Mizoram


The Mizo National Front fought for over two decades with the Indian Military in an effort to gain independence. As in neighbouring states the insurgency was quelled by force.

South India

Karnataka


Karnataka is considerably less affected by terrorism, despite having many places of historical importance and the IT hub of India, Bengaluru. However, recently Naxal activity has been increasing in the Western Ghats.

Bengaluru


Also, a few attacks have occurred, major ones including an attack on IISc on 28 December 2005 and serial blasts in Bengaluru on 26 July 2008.

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the few southern states affected by terrorism, although of a far different kind and on a much smaller scale.[citation needed] The terrorism in Andhra Pradesh stems from the People's War Group (PWG), popularly known as Naxalites.
The PWG has been operating in India for over two decades, with most of its operations in the Telangana[citation needed] region in Andhra Pradesh. The group is also active in Orissa and Bihar. Unlike the Kashmiri insurgents and ULFA, PWG is a Maoist terrorist organisation and communism is one of its primary goals.[citation needed]
Having failed to capture popular support in the elections, they resorted to violence as a means to voice their opinions. The group targets Indian Police, multinational companies, and other influential institutions in the name of the communism. PWG has also targeted senior government officials, including the attempted assassination of former Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu.

It reportedly has a strength of 800 to 1,000 well armed militants and is believed to have close links with the Maoists in Nepal and the LTTE of Sri Lanka. According to the Indian government, on an average, more than 60 civilians, 60 naxal rebels and a dozen policemen are killed every year because of PWG led insurgency. Also, one of the major terrorist attacks was the 25 August 2007 Hyderabad Bombing.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu had LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam) militants operating in the Tamil Nadu state up until the assassination of former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. LTTE had given many speeches in Tamil Nadu led by Velupillai Prabhakaran, Tamilselvan, and other Eelam members. The Tamil Tigers, now a banned organisation, had been receiving many donations and support from India in the past. The Tamil Nadu Liberation Army is a militant Tamil movement in India that has ties to LTTE.[citation needed]

1998 Coimbatore bombings

Tamil Nadu also faced terrorist attacks orchestrated by Muslim fundamentalists. For more information, see 1998 Coimbatore bombings.

Kerala

For a long time, Kerala was considered as a terror free state and model of tolerance and prosperity. The wake-up call came in October 2008, when four young Malayalis were killed by Indian security forces in an alleged jihadi training camp in Kashmir. Last July a different threat emerged when a group of young Muslims cut off the hand of a Christian professor, condemning him for writing an exam question they said insulted the Prophet Muhammad. According to Time Magazine, migrants to the Persian Gulf were taking extremist ideology to Kerala.[9]
In popular culture

Terrorism has also been depicted in various Indian films, prominent among them being Mani Ratnam's Roja (1992) and Dil Se.. (1998), Govind Nihlani's Drohkaal (1994), Santosh Sivan's The Terrorist (1999), Anurag Kashyap's Black Friday (2004) on the 1993 Bombay bombings, Fanaa (2006), and recently Sikandar (2009) on Terrorism in Kashmir. Raj Kumar Gupta's Aamir (2008) and Amal Neerad's Anwar (2010) are other examples.